On 1 January 2019, 21.8 million citizens of a non-member country lived in one of the 27 EU Member States, representing almost 5% of the EU population, Eurostat shows.
In addition, there were 13.3 million people living in one of the EU Member States on 1 January 2019 with the citizenship of another EU Member State, representing almost 3% of the EU population.
Highest shares of non-nationals in Luxembourg, lowest in Poland and Romania
In relative terms, the EU Member State with the highest share of non-nationals was Luxembourg, at 47% of its total population.
A high proportion of foreign citizens (10% or more of the resident population) was also observed in Cyprus, Malta, Austria, Estonia, Latvia, Ireland, Belgium, Germany and Spain.
In contrast, non-nationals represented less than 1% of the population in Poland and Romania.
In most EU Member States, the majority of non-nationals were citizens of non-EU countries.